Wound Care

Appropriate wound care is necessary to prevent infection and promote rapid healing. There are several ways to care for a wound , and the choice depends upon the severity and location of the wound. Proper wound dressing, topical and systemic antibiotics, anti-inflammatories, and surgical interventions are common methods for wound care.

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  • Diabetic Foot Care: Optimal diabetic foot care is essential for limb preservation. A diabetic foot ulcer is among the most common reasons for hospitalization and foot amputations in diabetic patients. Diabetic foot complications may be due to ischemia, neuropathy, or infection. Therefore, it is important to provide education related to diabetic foot care to all diabetic patients. Appropriate blood flow should be assessed through Doppler ultrasound. If ulceration is present and debridement is required, it can be done with a scalpel, offloading padding, and tissue nippers. In the case of advanced wounds, multiple care products are used, such as gauges, topical antimicrobials, cleaning solutions, moisture-retentive dressing, bioengineered dressing, and vacuum-assisted closure devices.
  • Venous Ulcer Management: Venous ulcers should be assessed in all patients with leg ulcers. Optimum management of venous ulcers restores mobility and avoids dependency. Almost 80-85% of cases of venous ulcers are due to venous hypertension. Thus, compression is the main treatment in most venous ulcer cases. The dressing should prevent cross-infection. In addition, the use of topical antimicrobials and mechanical debridement are recommended. Systemic therapies include systemic antibiotics to treat infections and other drugs to improve healing. The supportive therapies include elevating the legs, calf muscle exercises, and appropriate nutrition.
  • Specialized Dressing: Several types of wound dressing are available to protect the wound from various environmental pathogens. Specialized wound dressings offer protection, keep the wound moist, avoid pain and discomfort while removing the dressing, longer stay on the wound, and absorb discharge from the wound.
  • VAC Therapy: Vacuum-Assisted Closure (VAC) therapy accelerates the rate of wound healing. The VAC device lowers the air pressure on the wound, thereby allowing it to heal more quickly. The air pressure reduction helps reduce swelling by pulling the fluid from the wound. In addition, VAC therapy stimulates the growth of new tissues.
  • Dermal Substitutes for Wound Healing: Dermal substitutes are synthetic materials that replace the skin and are used for wound healing. Dermal substitutes comprise collagen and polyglactin.