Vascular malformations are congenital conditions related to blood vessels and lymph vessels. While some malformations are visible at birth, others appear during childhood or later. It is believed to occur due to developmental errors during embryogenesis. As blood vessel malformations usually accompany other genetic syndromes, a multidisciplinary approach is recommended to simultaneously manage the symptoms.
During sclerotherapy, a surgeon injects the contrast agent into the vascular malformation and evaluates it under X-ray.. A sclerosant is injected into the vascular malformation, which progressively shrinks the vessel. This procedure may be performed multiple times for effective outcomes.
Some vascular malformations do not present any problems for the patients. Certain others cause pain and discomfort and also interfere with routine activities. Large malformations may lead to heart failure in the long term. Malformations in the uterus and liver result in organ dysfunction. The complications associated with vascular malformations include stroke, bleeding in the brain, and aneurysms.