Stroke Prevention

A stroke is characterized by a reduced blood supply to the brain. It is an emergency condition and may be caused due to ischemic or rupture of the blood vessels. The symptoms of a stroke are difficulty speaking and understanding, numbness or paralysis of the face, leg, or arm, headache, blurred vision, and trouble walking.

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  • Carotid Endarterectomy: Carotid arteries supply blood to the face, neck, and brain. Carotid endarterectomy is the procedure for removing the accumulated plaque from the carotid artery. The plaque causes the narrowing of the artery, resulting in reduced blood flow. If the flow of blood to the brain is interrupted, the brain tissues begin to die. The patient may have had an ischemic stroke. Some patients may also have a transient ischemic attack. The procedure is performed under general anesthesia. Some side effects of carotid endarterectomy are heart attack, high blood pressure, bleeding, infection, and an irregular heartbeat.
  • Extracranial Intracranial Bypass: It is a type of cerebral bypass surgery. The procedure is used to manage the stroke and restore blood flow to the brain. The vessels involved in the bypass procedure are the middle cerebral artery and the superficial temporal artery. The superficial temporal artery supplies blood to the scalp and face. The middle cerebral artery takes blood to the temporal, frontal, and parietal lobes of the brain. There is a reduction in the blood flow in the middle cerebral artery in case of internal carotid artery stenosis. During the surgery, the neurosurgeons create a hole in the skull and connect the superficial temporal artery to the middle cerebral artery above the plaque, restoring blood flow. If the superficial temporal artery is unsuitable, the surgeon may connect another artery, such as the occipital artery.
  • Medical Management: Treatments of ischemic stroke include emergency IV medications and emergency endovascular procedures. Neurologists may deliver the medications directly into the brain to remove the clot. The treatments for hemorrhagic shock include surgical clipping, stereotactic radiosurgery, surgical AVM removal, and endovascular embolization.
  • Vertebral Artery Revascularization: This is the procedure performed to restore the flow of blood in the vertebral artery. The vertebral artery supplies blood to the brain and spinal cord.


The causes of stroke include uncontrolled blood pressure, trauma, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, aneurysms, and overtreatment with blood thinners.

A stroke diagnosis can be made by blood tests, physical examination, and imaging techniques such as carotid ultrasound, CT scan, MRI, echocardiogram, and cerebral angiogram.