Peripheral Arterial Aneurysms

A peripheral arterial aneurysm is characterized by bulging in one or more peripheral arteries due to weakened internal arterial walls. The leg and neck arteries are the most common peripheral arteries involved in arterial aneurysms. The risk factors include smoking, family and medical history of an aneurysm, and underlying connective tissue disorders.

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  • Diagnosis of Peripheral Arterial Aneurysms: Several methods exist to diagnose a peripheral arterial aneurysm. The doctor performs a comprehensive physical evaluation of the patient to detect the cause of the symptoms. The medical and family histories of the patients are also evaluated to determine any factors that increase the risk of peripheral arterial aneurysms. If the patient is suspected of having an aneurysm, the doctor may recommend certain non-invasive imaging tests, such as a CT scan, Doppler ultrasound, MRI, and angiography.
  • Conservative Management: In a mild aneurysm, the patient is prescribed conservative management options. The patient is recommended to avoid smoking, exercise, eat a healthy and nutritious diet, and manage high cholesterol and blood pressure. The conservative measures lower the risk of disease progression. The patients need to visit the hospital for a regular evaluation of the aneurysm.
  • Endovascular Aneurysm Repair: It is a minimally invasive surgery performed to reduce the risk of aneurysm rupture. The procedure involves placing the stent at the site of the aneurysm. It strengthens the arterial wall and provides structural support. The stent is placed under imaging guidance. In severe cases of aneurysms, patients may undergo multiple surgical interventions.
  • Open Surgery: Open surgery is reserved for those patients who are not eligible for endovascular aneurysm repair. The procedure involves replacing the damaged artery with a healthy arterial graft. During this procedure, the affected artery is exposed by making an incision in the skin. The aneurysm is opened by clamping the artery from above and below. The clot, if any, is removed, and the graft is stitched into the affected artery.
  • Emergency Treatment for Ruptured Aneurysms: A ruptured aneurysm is an emergency condition, and the patients who present with this situation usually have pain. The most common method to manage a ruptured aneurysm is open surgery.