Mesenteric Vasculature

The mesenteric artery supplies blood to the small intestine, large intestine, spleen, hepatobiliary system, proximal small bowel, proximal, middle colon, distal colon, and rectum. The types of diseases related to the mesenteric vasculature are mesenteric artery embolism, mesenteric artery thrombosis, mesenteric vein thrombosis, and non-occlusive mesenteric ischemia.

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  • Acute Mesenteric Ischemia: This condition is characterized by a sudden reduction in blood flow in the mesenteric vessels. In the absence of early treatment, the condition results in intestinal tissue necrosis, leading to sepsis and death. The blood clot in the mesenteric vessels is the most common cause of this condition.
  • Mesenteric Bypass: This is a major surgery that involves creating a bypass in the blocked mesenteric artery for smooth blood flow to the intestine. The procedure is performed under anesthesia. The bypass is created through a venous graft or a man-made material.
  • SMA Thrombosis: It is a serious and potentially fatal condition that involves superior mesenteric artery (SMA) blockage due to the formation of a blood clot. SMA supplies blood to the ascending colon and small intestine.
  • Celiac Artery Compression: This condition is also called Dunbar syndrome. It occurs when the median arcuate ligament compresses the celiac artery. The patients experience recurrent abdominal pain.
  • Mesenteric Thrombolysis: Mesenteric thrombolysis involves the dissolution of the blood clot in the mesenteric artery. As soon as mesenteric thrombosis is diagnosed, the patients are prescribed certain drugs to dissolve the clot.
  • SMA / Celiac Aneurysm: The condition is characterized by the bulging of the superior mesenteric artery. The causes include surgery, trauma, atherosclerosis, infection, and inflammation.
  • Splenic Aneurysm: The Splenic artery supplies blood to the spleen. The bulging of this artery is known as a splenic aneurysm. People with diabetes, liver cirrhosis, endocarditis, and atherosclerosis are at increased risk for splenic aneurysms.
  • Mesenteric Venous Thrombosis: It is a condition characterized by impairment of the venous return from the bowel due to the formation of a blood clot. Primary mesenteric venous thrombosis may be sudden and without any known cause, while secondary mesenteric venous thrombosis occurs due to underlying medical conditions.