Congenital Anomalies

Congenital anomalies are medical conditions present at birth. Most congenital anomalies require corrective surgery. The surgery aims to restore the functions of the affected organ and improves its aesthetic appearance. Surgery for congenital anomalies has a high success rate, improving the overall quality of life.

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  • Cleft Lip/Palate: Cleft palate and cleft lip are among the most common congenital anomalies. In this condition, there may be an incomplete formation of the palate (roof of the mouth), upper lip, or both. The cause remains unknown in several cases. However, it is believed to be due to the interaction of environmental and genetic factors. Surgery is performed to improve the aesthetic appearance of the lips and palate and restore their functions.
  • Syndactyly: Syndactyly is a congenital condition characterized by a fused or webbed finger. It may sometimes occur in the toes. Syndactyly release surgery is performed to treat syndactyly. It involves the splitting of skin between the fingers. After the fingers are separated, a skin graft is required to cover the fingers.
  • Craniosynostosis: Craniosynostosis involves the early fusion of the fibrous joints (sutures) of the skull bones. This condition results in abnormal growth of the skull and increased intracranial pressure due to restricted brain growth. The surgical interventions are usually performed during the first couple of years. The surgeries include spring-assisted craniectomy, strip craniectomy, and cranial vault remodeling.
  • Ear Deformities: The most common congenital deformity of the ear is the underdevelopment of the external ear. The external ear may be absent (anotia) or abnormally shaped (microtia). Some deformities are corrected without any intervention as the child grows. However, others require medical interventions.
  • Hypospadias: Hypospadias is a congenital abnormality that occurs in a male child. In this condition, the urethra (opening of the penis) is at the underside of the penis rather than on the tip. Hypospadias is treated by surgery.In some cases, more than one surgery is required to correct hypospadias.


The symptoms of hypospadias include the location of the penile opening at places other than the tip, abnormal urination, and a downward penile curve.

Various types of syndactyly are simple syndactyly (only the skin of the fingers is joined), complex syndactyly (skin and bones are fused), and complicated syndactyly (abnormal development of extra bones, tendons, and ligaments).