Urology Infections

Urinary tract infections are one of the most common infections. It includes infections of the kidney, ureter, urinary bladder, and urethra. The common symptoms include frequent urination, cloudy urine, blood in the urine (hematuria), burning sensation during urination, and abdominal pain. In case of symptoms, it is essential to consult expert urologists, as delayed diagnosis and treatment may result in complications.

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Diseases and conditions

  • Renal Abscess: A renal or kidney abscess is a condition characterized by the accumulation of pus pockets in the kidney tissues. It is generally a complication of renal infections. Patients with renal abscess experience chills, fever, abdominal pain, and discomfort.
  • Pyelonephritis: Infection in the kidney is known as pyelonephritis. Patients with this condition experience a burning sensation during urination, frequent urination, blood in the urine, fever, chills, abdominal pain, and cloudy or pungent-smelling urine.
  • Urinary Tract Infections: Urinary tract infections may develop in the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra. The infections primarily occur in the urethra and bladder.
  • Prostatitis: Prostatitis is characterized by inflammation of the prostate gland. Types of prostatitis include acute and chronic bacterial prostatitis, asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis, and chronic pelvic pain syndrome of chronic prostatitis. Complications of bacterial prostatitis include blood infection, infection of the pelvic bone, and formation of an abscess in the prostate gland.
  • Cystitis: Cystitis is a condition that involves inflammation of the urinary bladder. The disease is primarily caused by a bladder infection. The other causes of cystitis include exposure to drugs, radiation, and other chemicals, as well as underlying medical conditions, such as kidney stones, diabetes, and enlarged prostate.

Procedures and treatments

  • Medical Management of urinary tract infections: Antibiotics are generally considered a first-line of treatment for urinary tract infections. In recurrent infections, patients are advised to take low-dose antibiotics for longer periods. The doctor may also recommend single-dose antibiotics after sexual activity if they cause recurrent infections. Patients with severe urinary tract infections are generally admitted to the hospital and are administered IV antibiotics. The patients should also avoid liquids that irritate the bladder and drink plenty of water.
  • Percutaneous Nephrostomy (PCN): It is a minimally invasive procedure performed under radiological guidance. The process involves the insertion of a catheter into the kidney to drain the urine. It is done in several conditions, such as urinary obstruction due to pregnancy or renal transplant complications, decompression of abscess or urinoma, nondilated obstructive uropathy, for delivering antibiotic and antifungal medications, and during specific procedures, such as antegrade ureteral stent placement and stricture dilation.
  • Abscess Drainage: Drainage is one of the treatment options in patients with renal abscesses. The surgeon places a catheter in the kidney through a needle. The imaging techniques, such as x-ray, guide the catheter placement. A similar procedure is performed during the drainage of the abscess from the prostate.
  • Bladder washes: Bladder wash involves flushing the bladder with a sterile fluid. It is done after the bladder or prostate surgery to avoid the risk of formation or blood clots or to remove the blood clots.