The advancements in plastic and reconstructive surgeries have revolutionized the way of trauma management. These surgeries have allowed doctors to repair and reconstruct damaged tissues, improving health-related outcomes and overall quality of life. Plastic and reconstructive surgeries aim to improve the physical appearance and functional ability of the damaged tissues and organs, especially in the case of open lower limb fractures and maxillofacial injuries.

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  • Microvascular Reconstruction: It is a procedure that involves rejoining the blood vessels to restore blood flow to the damaged tissues. The surgeon uses a specialized instrument and microscope to perform the surgery. It is a highly complex surgical intervention due to the very small size of the blood vessels, which have a width in the range of 3 to 5 mm.
  • Maxillofacial Injuries: These injuries are also known as facial injuries. It involves injuries to the jawbone, face, and mouth. The maxillofacial trauma encompasses missing teeth, obstructions to the nasal cavity, burns, skin lacerations, jawbone fractures, orbital socket damage, and bruises. The type of surgery to be performed depends on the severity and location of the injury. Usually, the surgeon performs the CT scan to evaluate the extent of the injury and develop a treatment strategy.


Trauma may result in the dislocation of the jaw or the loosening or breaking of the teeth. However, severe jaw trauma, in some cases, may also result in permanent damage to the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and associated tendons or ligaments. Patients with severe trauma to the jaw may experience the symptoms of TMJ damage even after the healing of the fracture. The symptoms include spasms in the facial and jaw muscles, migraine or chronic headache, dizziness, painful popping or clicking of TMJ during eating or yawning, and short-term memory loss.

Microvascular surgery can be performed through several methods. These methods include free tissue transfer, nerve repair, vein grafting, free-bone transfer, and blood vessel repair (vascular anastomosis).