The thyroid is a butterfly-shaped gland situated at the base of the neck that secretes thyroxine (T-4) and triiodothyronine (T-3) hormones. There are several thyroid gland disorders, ranging from a small, benign goiter to thyroid cancer. It is advisable to consult with a doctor if the patient experiences thyroid disorder symptoms. Usually, primary care physicians refer to expert endocrinologists if the patient is diagnosed with a thyroid disorder.

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  • Hypothyroidism Management: Hypothyroidism is a condition characterized by reduced secretion of hormones by the thyroid gland. The disease is also called underactive thyroid. Patients with hypothyroidism do not experience any symptoms during the early stages. The symptoms of hypothyroidism are dry skin, muscle weakness, tiredness, constipation, thin hair, depression, weight gain, memory problems, and heavier menstrual cycles. Hypothyroidism may also occur in infants and children. The causes of hypothyroidism include autoimmune disease, thyroid gland removal (partially or completely), thyroiditis, radiation therapy, and medicines. The usual method of treatment is the administration of levothyroxine medicine.
  • Hyperthyroidism Management: Hyperthyroidism, also called overactive thyroid, is a disease characterized by increased secretion of thyroid gland hormones.Patients with hyperthyroidism experience unintended weight loss, rapid or irregular heartbeat, sweating, increased heat sensitivity, sleep problems, altered menstrual cycles, tiredness, thinning skin, and muscle weakness. The causes of hyperthyroidism are overactive thyroid nodules, Grave's disease, and thyroiditis. The treatment options include anti-thyroid medications, beta-blockers, thyroidectomy, and radiation therapy.
  • Thyroid Nodules Management: These are fluid-filled or solid lumps that develop in the thyroid gland. Most people with thyroid nodules do not experience symptoms. Fortunately, only a small percentage of them are cancerous. The thyroid nodules may cause increased secretion of the hormone thyroxine, which causes symptoms. The symptoms include tremors, increased sweating, nervousness, and unexplained weight loss. The treatment options for thyroid nodules are thyroid hormone therapy and surgery. In asymptomatic patients, the doctor may advise monitoring.
  • Post thyroidectomy Care: Thyroidectomy is a surgical intervention involving partial or complete thyroid gland removal. Patients who have had thyroid surgery require adequate care. The patient should eat soft food as there may be a feeling of discomfort while swallowing. The doctor prescribes medications to control pain and regulate calcium, and thyroid levels. These should be taken strictly as advised by the doctor. If thyroidectomy is done as a part of the thyroid cancer treatment strategy, the patient may need to visit the hospital to receive radioactive iodine that kills any remaining cancer cells. The patient should take good care of the wound. Normal activities may be resumed within 4-5 days post-surgery.


The causes of thyroid nodules are:

  • Thyroid cyst
  • Multinodular goiter
  • Overgrowth of thyroid tissue
  • Inflammatory nodules due to chronic inflammation
  • Thyroid cancer
  • Deficiency of iodine

Some of the complications of thyroid disorders are:

  • Complications of hypothyroidism: The complications of hypothyroidism include heart problems, goiter, peripheral neuropathy, birth defects, infertility, and myxedema coma (severe complication that requires immediate medical intervention). The symptoms of myxedema coma include drowsiness, hypothermia, and confusion.
  • Complications of hyperthyroidism: Complications of hyperthyroidism include heart problems, such as congestive heart failure and atrial fibrillation, vision problems, such as double vision, bulging eyes, ocular pressure, and light sensitivity, brittle bones, and inflamed eyes, swollen and discolored skin, and thyrotoxic crisis.