Thoracic Procedures

Surgical interventions to manage diseases of the thorax require thoracic procedures. It involves surgeries of the lungs, diaphragm, windpipe (trachea), esophagus, pleural space, mediastinum, and chest wall. As the thoracic cavity has vital organs, such as the lungs and heart, several conditions require immediate medical intervention.

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  • Conditions
  • Thoracic Trauma: Thoracic trauma includes penetrating and blunt trauma. Motor vehicle collisions are the main cause of thoracic trauma. The other causes include violence (physical assault), blasts, falls, and motor vehicle accidents.
  • Empyema: The pleural cavity is the space between the chest cavity and the lungs. The presence of pus in this space is known as empyema. It is generally caused when the lung infection spreads to the pleural space.
  • COPD: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) causes breathing problems due to restricted airflow. It includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema. Patients with COPD experience chest tightness, fatigue, and wheezing.
  • Lung Fibrosis: Lung fibrosis is characterized by scarred and damaged lung tissues. Smoking, exposure to harmful dust or fumes, and advanced age are risk factors for pulmonary fibrosis.
  • Benign Lung Diseases: Several benign nodules or tumors are found in the lungs. These are non-cancerous and not life-threatening. Types of benign lung tumors are hamartomas, papillomas, bronchial adenomas, and fibromas.
  • Pleural Diseases: The pleura or pleural tissue lines inside the chest cavity and outside of the lungs. The pleural disorders include pleurisy, pneumothorax, and pleural effusion.
  • Diaphragm Disorders: Several diseases affect the diaphragm. These include diaphragmatic dysfunction, diaphragm paralysis, and diaphragm hernia.
  • Chest Wall Disorders: Chest wall disorders comprise congenital disorders of the chest present at birth and acquired chest disorders caused due to illness or injuries. The congenital chest disorders include pectus carinatum and pectus excavatum.
  • Procedures
  • Pneumonectomy: This surgical procedure involves the removal of one entire lung due to trauma, cancer, or other conditions.
  • Lobectomy: Three lobes are present in the right lung and two in the left lung. The removal of a damaged lobe is known as lobectomy.
  • Decortication: This surgical intervention removes the fibrous tissue abnormally developed on the surface of the chest wall, lung, or diaphragm.
  • Thoracoscopy: Thoracoscopy is a diagnostic procedure performed to evaluate the health of the chest cavity, including the pleural space.
  • Uniport VATS: Uniport video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery is a minimally invasive surgery that involves creating only a single incision between the ribs to access the lungs. It.