A stroke occurs when the blood supply to the brain is hampered due to rupture or blockage of the blood vessels, resulting in a reduced or no supply of oxygen and nutrients to the brain tissues. A stroke is a medical emergency and requires immediate medical intervention. The symptoms occur without any warning and may cause permanent brain damage.

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  • Hemorrhagic Stroke: There are several blood vessels in the brain. Rupture and subsequent bleeding of any of the blood vessels is known as hemorrhagic stroke. The bleeding may be inside the brain or between the brain and the membrane. It is a life-threatening condition and requires immediate medical intervention. Symptoms of hemorrhagic stroke are nausea and vomiting, dizziness, headache, increased sensitivity to light, seizures, unconsciousness, coma, paralysis, neck stiffening, and difficulty speaking.
  • Ischemic Stroke: Ischemic stroke is also known as cerebral or brain ischemia. The condition is characterized by a reduction in the blood supply, leading to oxygen and nutrient deprivation in the brain cells. It leads to death or damage to the brain cells. Ischemic stroke symptoms include dizziness and vertigo, vision disorders, such as blindness or double vision, drooping of the face, confusion, and lack of coordination. The risk factors for ischemic stroke include high cholesterol, atherosclerosis, hypertension, atrial fibrillation, a history of heart attack, clotting disorders, sickle cell anemia, and congenital heart disease.
  • Brain Stem Stroke: A brain stem stroke occurs when the blood vessels carrying blood to the brain stem either rupture or are blocked, leading to a reduced or no blood supply to the brain stem. The brainstem helps in several vital functions, such as swallowing, breathing, and balancing. A stroke in the brain stem may affect these functions. The symptoms of a brain stem stroke include difficulty swallowing, loss of ability to speak, altered eye movements, lack of muscle control, and altered breathing patterns.
  • Transient Ischemic Attack: Transient ischemic attack is a transient episode of events similar to a stroke. The episode lasts a few minutes and does not cause permanent brain tissue injury. Transient ischemic attack, known as a mini-stroke, increases the risk of stroke. Symptoms of transient ischemic stroke are blindness or double vision, numbness, weakness or paralysis of the arm, face, and leg, slurred speech, and loss of balance or vertigo. Risk factors for transient ischemic stroke include a family history of stroke or transient ischemic stroke, medical history of transient ischemic stroke, sickle cell disease, underlying medical conditions, such as diabetes, carotid artery disease, hypercholesterolemia, high blood pressure, and peripheral artery disease, and poor lifestyle habits, such as poor nutrition, smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and substance abuse.
  • Cryptogenic Stroke: When the cause of a stroke is not determined, the condition is called a cryptogenic stroke. It is also known as an embolic stroke of an unknown source because the majority of cryptogenic strokes are due to the formation of blood clots in other places that travel to the brain vessels to obstruct the blood flow (thromboembolism).