Spondylosis is a medical condition that occurs due to degeneration of the disc, the formation of bone spurs on the spine, or both. Patients with this condition have reduced movement ability and experience pain and tingling sensation. The complications of spondylosis include cervical spondylotic myelopathy, spinal stenosis, scoliosis, and cervical radiculopathy.

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  • Cervical Spondylosis: Patients with cervical spondylosis have age-related damage in the spinal disks of the neck. It is a common condition in people over the age of 60 years. The symptoms of cervical spondylosis include difficulty walking, lack of coordination, loss of bowel or bladder control, headache, muscle spasms, dizziness, neck stiffness, neck soreness, and numbness and tingling sensation in hands and feet if the nerve roots or spinal cord is compressed. The patients also have muscle weakness in the extremities. The risk factors for cervical spondylosis include engaging in a job requiring repetitive neck motions, age, neck injuries, smoking, and genetic factors. If there is severe compression of the nerve roots or spinal cord, the patients may experience permanent pain.
  • Lumbar Spondylosis: It is a degenerative disc disease that affects the lumbar vertebrae. The symptoms of lumbar spondylosis include spasms in the lower back muscles, numbness in the feet, toes, or lower back, sciatica pain, pain in the buttocks, and popping or grinding sensations when the person stands or sits. In some cases, the patients may also experience low bladder and bowel control. The treatment options for lumbar spondylosis include pain-relieving medications, steroidal injections, and muscle relaxants. Hot and cold therapy along with physical therapy may also manage the pain of lumbar spondylosis. The patients should also change their lifestyle by maintaining a healthy weight, performing low-impact exercises, and avoiding lifting heavy weights.
  • Thoracic Spondylosis: It is a degenerative condition of the thoracic spine. Patients with this condition experience symptoms, particularly in the upper back. There may be stiffness when the patient stretches to reach objects or turns around. If the nerve is compressed, there may be a tingling sensation in the stomach, arms, and back. Thoracic spondylosis significantly affects the quality of life. The other symptoms include muscle spasms and joint locking and clicking.
  • Multilevel Spondylosis: It involves degeneration of the disc or osteoarthritis of the spine simultaneously at multiple levels, such as lumbar, cervical, and thoracic. It is a relatively more severe form of spondylosis due to extensive spinal degeneration.