The skin protects the body from the effects of external factors, such as chemicals, pathogens, and temperature. There are several diseases of the skin. Fortunately, most skin diseases are diagnosed at early stages due to visualized alterations of the skin’s characteristics.

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  • Acne: There are several tiny pores on the skin. Acne occurs when these pores are blocked with oil, dead skin cells, bacteria, and dirt. The symptoms of acne include pus-filled papules or lumps, or small, tender bumps. The other symptoms accompanying acne are swelling, inflammation, and skin discoloration.
  • Pigmentation: Pigmentation disorders involve the alteration of skin color. Melanocytes in the skin produce a pigment, melanin, which imparts color to the skin. Alteration in the function of melanocytes results in pigmentation disorders. If the melanocytes are overactive, the skin color of that area would be relatively darker. Discoloration may be due to pregnancy, Addison's disease, and sun exposure. Reduced activity of melanocytes results in lighter skin color, leading to hypopigmentation disorders, such as vitiligo.
  • Skin Tags and Warts: Skin tags are minor growths that are connected to the skin through a thin stalk. They develop when there is excessive growth of cells on the upper skin layer. It is more common in the elderly, pregnant women, and patients with type 2 diabetes. Warts are raised skin bumps caused by the human papillomavirus infection. They are contagious, and the patients may experience pain and discomfort.
  • Psoriasis: It is an autoimmune disease characterized by skin inflammation. Other symptoms of psoriasis are increased skin sensitivity, joint pain, itching, dry skin, and pitted nails.
  • Lichen Planus: It is a condition characterized by irritation and swelling on the skin, nails, hairs, and mucus membranes. It is an autoimmune disease, and the treatment options include anti-infective medications, corticosteroids, immunosuppressant drugs, antihistamines, and light therapy.
  • Infections: Infections on the skin may develop due to bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. The treatment depends upon the type of infection and its severity.
  • Pediatric Dermatology: Pediatric dermatology involves treating skin-related disorders in children, such as warts, eczema, birthmarks, and psoriasis.