Pancreas is both an exocrine and an endocrine gland. It helps digestion through its exocrine function and regulates blood sugar via its endocrine function. The digestive fluid of the pancreas contains lipase, amylase, and protease. It also releases the hormones glucagon and insulin. Pancreas is anatomically divided into head, neck, body, and tail.


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  • Acute Pancreatitis: This condition is characterized by the development of inflammation of the pancreas within a short period of time. The patients experience sickness, fever, sudden pain in the center of the abdomen, nausea, and vomiting. The most common causes for acute pancreatitis include excessive and prolonged alcohol intake and gallstones. The other causes include cystic fibrosis, pancreatic cancer, abdominal surgery, and obesity.
  • Chronic Pancreatitis: It is a progressive inflammatory condition characterized by irreversible damage to the secretory cells of the pancreas. Patients with chronic pancreatitis experience severe abdominal pain, malabsorption, and an increased blood sugar level.
  • Pancreatic Pseudocyst: A Pancreatic pseudocyst occurs in chronic or acute pancreatitis patients. They account for almost 80% of the cystic lesions found in the pancreas. The symptoms of pancreatic pseudocysts are nausea, abdominal pain, and vomiting.
  • Walled-Off Necrosis (WON): It was formerly called a pancreatic abscess. Walled-off necrosis is a rare but fatal complication of acute pancreatitis. However, it may also occur due to pancreatic trauma or chronic pancreatitis. The condition usually occurs four weeks after acute pancreatitis. Aggressive management is required to avoid complications.
  • Pancreatic Divisum: This condition occurs when the dorsal and ventral buds of the pancreas do not fuse. Patients with pancreatic divisum experience abdominal pain, bloating, nausea, jaundice, and recurrent pancreatic inflammation.
  • Pancreatic Ascites: It is a condition that involves the leakage of pancreatic secretion into the abdomen due to injury of the pancreatic duct. It is a rare condition and may be caused by pancreatic trauma, chronic pancreatitis, or ampullary stenosis.
  • Carcinoma Pancreas: Pancreatic cancer develops when the cells of the pancreas undergo mutation, divide, and grow uncontrollably.
  • Pancreatic Cystic Neoplasms: It is a group of pancreatic cysts and includes intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, serous cystic neoplasms, mucinous cystic neoplasms, and other rare cystic lesions.


The treatments for chronic pancreatitis are analgesics, management of diabete, digestive enzymes, steroids, endoscopy to correct blockages, and surgery to drain cysts.

The symptoms of pancreatic cancer are abdominal pain, loss of appetite, yellowing skin, blood clots, itchy skin, dark-colored urine, and fatigue.