Other Endocrine Disorders

Sex hormone disorders, also known as reproductive hormone disorders, significantly affect the quality of life and cause various symptoms. For example, it may lead to infertility and reduced libido. Both females and males have estrogen and testosterone; however, the levels differ in both genders. Males have a high testosterone level, while females have a high estrogen level. The parathyroid glands are situated behind the thyroid gland. It helps regulate the balance of calcium in the blood.

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  • Sex Hormones and Puberty Related Disorders Management: Sex hormone disorders develop when there is a disease in the organs or glands secreting or regulating the sex hormones in the body. Women are relatively more prone to sex hormone disorders compared to men. In men, the primary sex hormone is testosterone. It is secreted by the testes and regulated by the adrenal and pituitary glands. Similarly, the ovaries produce estrogen in women, and the adrenal and pituitary glands regulate its production. Treatment depends on the type and severity of the condition and the patient’s gender.
  • Parathyroid/Calcium Related Disorders Management: Parathyroid gland disorders include hyperparathyroidism, hypoparathyroidism, and parathyroid cancer. Out of these, hyperparathyroidism is relatively more common. It is characterized by excessive secretion of parathyroid hormone, which increases calcium levels in the blood. The treatment options for parathyroid disorders include medications, monitoring, surgery, and dietary supplements.


The following are the symptoms of parathyroid disorders:

  • Symptoms of hyperparathyroidism: Symptoms of hyperparathyroidism are body pain, difficulty sleeping, poor concentration, chronic fatigue, headache, body ache, depression, and memory loss. If left untreated, it may cause osteoporosis, cardiac arrhythmia, kidney stones, hypertension, and kidney failure.
  • Symptoms of hypoparathyroidism: Patients with hypoparathyroidism experience muscle cramps in their feet, face, and stomach, burning or tingling sensation in toes, fingertips, and lips, weakness and fatigue, twitching of muscles, dry skin, anxiety or depression, brittle nails, painful menstrual periods.

Some of the causes of sex hormone disorders are:

  • Infection of organs or glands that secretes or regulates sex hormones
  • Injury or surgical removal of testicles (in males)
  • Underlying medical conditions
  • Excessive consumption of alcohol or drug abuse
  • Medications, such as steroids
  • Hereditary conditions
  • Ovarian cysts or ovarian tumors (in females)
  • Low body fat
  • Obesity

Some of the disorders related to sex hormones are:

  • Disorders related to the development of sex hormones: These disorders include congenital adrenal hyperplasia, hermaphrodism, androgen insensitivity syndrome, and gonadal dysgenesis.
  • Acquired hypogonadism (Gonadotropin deficiency): It includes testicular failure and ovarian failure. Ovarian failure may lead to premature menopause.
  • Inherited hypogonadism: The inherited hypogonadism conditions may be due to Klinefelter syndrome, Kallmann syndrome, or Turner syndrome.
  • Puberty disorders: Puberty disorders comprise precocious puberty and delayed puberty.
  • Fertility disorders related to the menstrual cycle: These include polycystic ovary syndrome and amenorrhea.