Cancer is a progressive, life-threatening condition with a high mortality rate, especially in its advanced stages. Patients with advanced stages of cancer have several emergency conditions, such as neurological disorders, cardiovascular complications, kidney injury, and acute respiratory failure, which can lead to emergency situations and may require admission in critical care. In addition, such patients have a unique need for care due to the underlying pathophysiology of cancer and treatment-related toxicities.
Oncological Critical Care refers to specialized medical care provided to cancer patients who require intensive monitoring and treatment for critical conditions related to their cancer or its treatment.
Tumor Lysis Syndrome is a potentially life-threatening condition that can occur when cancer cells release large amounts of cellular components into the bloodstream, leading to metabolic imbalances. It may cause electrolyte abnormalities, kidney dysfunction, and cardiac complications.
The management of Tumor Lysis Syndrome involves close monitoring of electrolyte levels, hydration, and administration of medications to control uric acid levels in the blood. In severe cases, dialysis may be necessary.
Neutropenic Sepsis is a serious infection that occurs in individuals with low levels of neutrophils (a type of white blood cell) resulting from chemotherapy or bone marrow transplantation. It can lead to life-threatening complications if not promptly diagnosed and treated.
Treatment for Neutropenic Sepsis typically involves immediate administration of broad-spectrum antibiotics along with supportive measures such as fluid resuscitation and close monitoring in an intensive care setting until the patient's immune system recovers.
BMT (Bone Marrow Transplantation) Complications refer to potential side effects or problems that may arise after undergoing this procedure. These can include graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), infections, organ damage, and other transplant-related complications requiring critical care interventions.
Management of BMT Complications requires a multidisciplinary approach involving close monitoring, immunosuppressive therapy for GVHD, antimicrobial treatments for infections, and supportive care to address organ dysfunction.
Tumor-Related Complications refer to various medical issues that arise directly from the presence or growth of cancer cells in the body. Examples include spinal cord compression, superior vena cava syndrome (SVCS), and malignant pleural effusions.
The management of Tumor-Related Complications involves prompt diagnosis, symptom relief measures such as pain control or drainage procedures, and appropriate oncological interventions like radiation therapy or chemotherapy to target the underlying tumor causing the complication.
Neutrophils, a type of blood cell, protect the body against infection. Anticancer therapy reduces the number of these cells, thereby increasing the risk of infections in these patients.
Various complications of cancer treatment include: