Neuromuscular Disorders

The nervous system of the body controls muscle activity. When there is a problem in the muscles, the patient may experience muscular dysfunction. The causes of the neuromuscular disorder include inherited disorders, injury to the nerves, hormonal disorders, or underlying diseases affecting the nerves.

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  • Myasthenia Gravis: It is a chronic, autoimmune disease that causes skeletal muscle weakness. The weakness of the muscles worsens during physical activity and improves after rest. The most common muscles affected by this neurological condition are those that control talking, chewing, swallowing, eye movement, and facial expressions. The symptoms of myasthenia gravis include blurred vision, shortness of breath, difficulty swallowing, problem speaking, and altered facial expressions.
  • Muscular Dystrophy: It is a group of conditions characterized by progressive muscle weakness and reduced muscle mass. The condition is caused by interference in the synthesis of proteins required to form healthy muscles. There are several types of muscular dystrophies, such as Duchenne-type muscular dystrophy, Becker muscular dystrophy, facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy, myotonic muscular dystrophy, limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, and congenital muscular dystrophy.
  • Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: It is a progressive neurological condition affecting the motor neuron. It interferes with brain and spinal cord activities, leading to reduced muscle control. The symptoms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis include weakness in the legs, hands, and ankles, muscle cramps, falling, problems in walking, and behavioral and cognitive changes.
  • Lambert-Eaton syndrome: It is an autoimmune disease in which the immune system damages the connections between the muscles and nerves. The condition is most often found in patients suffering from small lung cancer and is believed to originate when the body fights against cancer. The symptoms of Lambert-Eaton syndrome include weak muscles, fatigue, dry mouth, trouble walking, difficulty breathing, and erectile dysfunction.
  • Cramp-fasciculation syndrome: It is a rare peripheral nerve disorder characterized by acceleration of nerve activities in various parts of the body, especially the legs. The symptoms of Cramp-fasciculation syndrome include involuntary contraction of muscles, pain due to cramps, and numbness or tingling sensation in the affected area. The diagnosis of the disease can be made through electromyography or somatosensory evoked potentials.