Menopausal problems

Menopause occurs when estrogen production is stopped in the ovaries and women have no ovulation. Fifty-one years is the average age for menopause in women. Reduced levels of estrogen result in several symptoms, such as hot flashes and urinary incontinence. Appropriate management of these symptoms improves the overall quality of life.

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  • Urinary Infections: There are several reasons for the increased risk of urinary infections in menopausal women. Reduced estrogen levels in menopausal women alter the bacterial flora, leading to an increased incidence of urinary infection. Menopausal women also have trouble fully emptying the bladder. Further, as the woman ages, there is thinning of the vaginal tissues, which increases the risk for infection.
  • Vaginal Itching: Several women after menopause experience vaginal itching. It is due to increased dryness and thinning of the vaginal tissue. The condition is known as vaginal atrophy. Women with this condition have pain and itching in the vulva or the vagina. Such women experience pain during sexual intercourse.
  • Urinary Incontinence: Menopausal women have an increased incidence of developing urinary incontinence. The symptoms of urinary incontinence include loss of bladder control and frequent and urgent urination. Estrogen before menopause maintains the strength of pelvic muscles, which helps control the bladder. However, as the woman approaches menopause, estrogen levels are reduced, leading to urinary incontinence.
  • Post-menopausal Bleeding: Post-menopausal bleeding indicates the bleeding that occurs during menopause. There are several causes of menopausal bleeding, such as vaginal inflammation and thinning of the vaginal or uterine lining. These changes occur due to reduced estrogen levels. Sometimes, patients mistakenly consider bladder, urethra, or gastrointestinal tract bleeding as vaginal bleeding. This bleeding should not be ignored; patients should consult gynecologists for proper diagnosis and treatment.
  • Hot Flashes: Women with menopause commonly experience hot flashes. They are characterized by a sudden flare of heat, sweating, and flushed heat. The occurrence of hot flashes varies from person to person. In some women, hot flashes occur for some time after menopause. In others, the hot flashes remain for the rest of their lives.