Large intestinal disorders

The large intestine, also called the colon, is the place for the production and storage of stool. Several diseases affect the large intestine. These are colon cancer, colon polyps, ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, irritable bowel syndrome, ischemic colitis, and diverticulitis.

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  • Crohn’s Disease: It is one of the types of inflammatory bowel disease characterized by digestive tract inflammation. Symptoms of Crohn's disease are severe diarrhea, abdominal pain, fatigue, malnutrition, and weight loss. The immune system and heredity likely play a role in the development of Crohn's disease.
  • Ulcerative Colitis: It is an inflammatory bowel disease characterized by ulcers and inflammation in the innermost colon lining. The patients experience rectal pain, fever, fatigue, defecation urgency, weight loss, abdominal cramps, rectal bleeding, and diarrhea.
  • Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Irritable bowel syndrome involves irritation of the large intestine due to several reasons. The irritation results in abdominal pain, gas, bloating, constipation or diarrhea, and altered bowel movement. The causes of irritable bowel syndrome are severe infections, nervous system disorders, intestinal muscle contractions, and stress.
  • Colon Polyps: These are the clusters of cells present on the lining of the colon. Fortunately, most colon polyps are benign. However, some polyps can potentially develop into malignant forms over time. Risk factors for colon polyps include advanced age, excessive alcohol consumption, smoking, family history of polyps, and obesity.
  • Colon cancer: Colon cancer is a condition characterized by uncontrolled growth and division of large intestinal cells. The advanced diagnostic technique may detect colon cancer early, provided the patients do not ignore the initial symptoms.
  • Diverticulitis: Colon diverticulitis is a condition that involves the development and inflammation of the bulging pouches in the inner lining of the colon. The symptoms of diverticulitis are abdominal tenderness, nausea, vomiting, fever, constipation, and persistent pain in the abdomen.
  • Colonic Strictures: It is a condition that involves the narrowing of the colon due to underlying conditions. The strictures may be inflammatory or fibrotic. Inflammatory strictures may be caused due to inflammatory bowel disease.