Blood pressure measures the force of the heart while pumping blood. The condition characterized by abnormally high blood pressure is known as hypertension. Untreated hypertension results in several complications, such as stroke, heart failure, and kidney damage. Risk factors for hypertension are obesity, age, smoking, an unhealthy lifestyle, low potassium levels, high salt intake, stress, pregnancy, and underlying chronic diseases, such as diabetes and sleep apnea.
The stages of hypertension are elevated blood pressure (120-129 mm HG/<80 mm Hg), stage 1 hypertension (130-139 mm Hg/80-89 mm Hg), stage 2 hypertension (140/90 mm Hg or more), and hypertensive crisis (180/120 or higher).
Various causes of secondary hypertension include polycystic kidney disease, diabetes complications, glomerular disease, pheochromocytoma, hyperparathyroidism, Cushing syndrome, thyroid disorders, obesity, sleep apnea, pregnancy, and obesity.