Blood pressure measures the force of the heart while pumping blood. The condition characterized by abnormally high blood pressure is known as hypertension. Untreated hypertension results in several complications, such as stroke, heart failure, and kidney damage. Risk factors for hypertension are obesity, age, smoking, an unhealthy lifestyle, low potassium levels, high salt intake, stress, pregnancy, and underlying chronic diseases, such as diabetes and sleep apnea.

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  • Essential Hypertension: It is also known as primary hypertension. This type of hypertension occurs when the patient has abnormally high blood pressure that is not due to an underlying medical condition. The risk factors for essential hypertension include obesity, an unhealthy lifestyle and diet, and family history.
  • Secondary Hypertension: Patients with secondary hypertension have high blood pressure due to certain underlying medical conditions. These conditions may be related to the kidneys, heart, arteries, or endocrine system. The complications of secondary hypertension include narrowed renal blood vessels, aneurysms, heart failure, arterial damage, metabolic syndrome, and problems with concentration and memory.
  • Uncontrolled Severe Hypertension: Some patients may have high blood pressure even after taking the prescribed medications. This type of hypertension is known as uncontrolled hypertension or resistant hypertension. The blood pressure of such patients is not in the normal range even after taking at least three antihypertensive drugs of different classes, one of which is a diuretic. The treatment for resistant hypertension involves managing the underlying medical condition causing high blood pressure and altering lifestyle.
  • Malignant Hypertension: It occurs in almost 1% of patients with hypertension. Young adults are at increased risk for developing malignant hypertension. Malignant hypertension is characterized by a sudden increase in blood pressure that enhances the risk of organ damage. It is a medical emergency and requires immediate intervention.
  • Isolated Systolic Hypertension: In this type of hypertension, the systolic blood pressure of the patient is higher than normal, while the diastolic blood pressure is within the normal range. It occurs most commonly in patients with advanced age due to reduced arterial elasticity.
  • Renal Artery Stenosis: Renal artery stenosis is characterized by narrowing of the arteries that supply blood to the kidneys. Patients do not experience any symptoms during the early stages. If high blood pressure is diagnosed in people above the age of 50 or below the age of 30, or if the patients have a sudden increase in blood pressure without any obvious reason, the doctor may suspect renal artery stenosis.