Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by abnormal and uncontrolled muscle movement episodes. The cause of epilepsy is the generation of abnormal electrical impulses in the brain. There are various types of epilepsies. The symptoms experienced by the patients depend upon the type of epilepsy. Risk factors for epilepsy include brain tumors, very high fever, traumatic brain injury, lack of blood supply to the brain, infections, such as meningitis, and underlying neurological conditions.

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  • Absence Seizure: Absence seizure, also known as petit mal seizure, are generalized onset seizures and begin simultaneously on both sides of the brain. The symptoms of absence seizure are blank stare, loss of consciousness for a short period, and repetitive movements, such as blinking and smacking. Absence seizures more commonly occur in children compared to adults.
  • Febrile Seizure: These seizures occur in children suffering from fever. The most common age for developing febrile seizures is six months to three years. They are divided into simple febrile seizures and complex febrile seizures. Although the cause of the fever plays no role in the development of febrile seizures, it has been found that fever due to viral infections is more likely to cause febrile seizures than fever due to a bacterial infection.
  • Clonic Seizures: Patients with clonic seizures experience repeated relaxing and stiffening of the muscles (repeated jerking), which. cannot be stopped by repositioning or restraining of the legs or arms. When the seizure starts in one side of the brain, it is known as a focal seizure, and when both sides of the brain are involved, the seizure is known as a generalized seizure.
  • Myoclonic seizures: Patients with myoclonic seizures have a sudden jerking muscle movement for a brief period. Infantile spasm is a type of myoclonic seizure that occurs in children between 3 and 12 months. Patients suffering from Lennox-Gastaut syndrome also experience myoclonic seizures of the upper arms, neck, face, and shoulders.
  • Tonic-Clonic Seizure: Patients with Tonic-Clonic seizure experience both jerking movements and stiffening of the muscles. There is a sound of groaning or crying as the air travels through the vocal cords with force. There is a loss of consciousness, and the patients may bite the inside of the mouth or the tongue, which might lead to the release of saliva and blood.