Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by abnormal and uncontrolled muscle movement episodes. The cause of epilepsy is the generation of abnormal electrical impulses in the brain. There are various types of epilepsies. The symptoms experienced by the patients depend upon the type of epilepsy. Risk factors for epilepsy include brain tumors, very high fever, traumatic brain injury, lack of blood supply to the brain, infections, such as meningitis, and underlying neurological conditions.
Some of the complications of epilepsy include drowning, vehicle accidents, self-inflicted injuries, emotional issues, such as anxiety and depression, the risk of birth defects (in pregnant women) due to medications, the side effects of medications, such as nausea and drowsiness, and increased risk of permanent brain damage.
The techniques for diagnosing epilepsy are neurological examinations, blood tests, high-density electroencephalogram, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT) scan, positron emission tomography (PET) scan, functional MRI, and neuropsychological tests.