Endometriosis is a painful disorder in which the growth of tissue similar to the tissue that normally lines the inside of the uterus grows outside the uterus. Symptoms of endometriosis include pain during intercourse, excessive bleeding, painful menstruation, pain during urination and bowel movements, and infertility.

"Obstetrics & Gynecology"

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  • Laparoscopy: To diagnose endometriosis, surgeons may perform minimally invasive surgeries, such as laparoscopy. The doctor recommends laparoscopy in several cases, such as those with persistent abdominal pain suspected to be due to endometriosis, symptoms of endometriosis recurring after hormone therapy, endometriosis suspected to be interfering with other organs, such as the bowel or bladder, and endometriosis causing infertility.
  • Medical Management: The doctor prescribes several medications that reduce the symptoms related to endometriosis. The medications for endometriosis include analgesics, NSAIDs, and hormone therapy. Hormone therapy includes gonadotropin-releasing hormone (Gn-RH) agonists and antagonists, hormonal contraceptives, aromatase inhibitors, and progestin therapy.
  • Conservative Surgery: Endometriosis may result in infertility. If the woman with endometriosis tries to become pregnant, the doctor removes the endometrial tissues through surgery and preserves the activity of the ovaries and the uterus. Most cases of severe endometriosis can be managed through laparoscopic surgery.
  • Hysterectomy: Hysterectomy (removal of the uterus) and oophorectomy (removal of the ovaries) were previously considered among the most effective strategies for managing endometriosis. However, not many surgeons are currently using this strategy. It is because several women experience endometriosis symptoms even after the surgery. Further, removing the uterus and ovaries lowers the hormone level, leading to early menopause. Women with early menopause are at increased risk for developing cardiovascular disease.
  • Fertility Treatment: Several procedures are available to manage infertility caused by endometriosis. The doctor may prescribe medications to induce ovaries, resulting in an increased number of eggs, or recommend the patients undergo in-vitro fertilization.


Causes of endometriosis include peritoneal cell transformation, immune system disorders, the transformation of embryonic cells, the transport of endometrial cells, the implantation of the surgical scar, and retrograde menstruation.

One of the most common complications of endometriosis is infertility. Endometriosis also increases the risk of ovarian cancer and endometriosis-associated adenocarcinomas.