Endocrine And Thyroid Cancer

Surgery is generally the first-line management option for endocrine and thyroid cancers. There are several invasive procedures for removing non-cancerous and cancerous tumors. These include conventional, endoscopic, robotic, and transoral surgery.

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  • Lobectomy: The thyroid gland consists of two lobes that are attached by the tissue known as the isthmus. Lobectomy is the procedure of removing one of the two lobes to treat thyroid cancer. The procedure is used in cases where the cancer is limited to only one lobe. Usually, the isthmus is also removed along with the lobe. This treatment is preferred for follicular or papillary thyroid cancer. Lobectomy is also used for diagnostic purposes when the results of an FNA (FIne Needle Aspiration) biopsy are inconclusive.
  • Thyroidectomy: Thyroidectomy is a surgical intervention involving the removal of the complete thyroid gland. An incision is made in the neck to expose the thyroid gland. The patients may expect a scar on the neck that fades away with time. If the complete thyroid gland is removed, the procedure is known as a total thyroidectomy. However, if the significant portion is removed, it is known as a near-total thyroidectomy.
  • Laparoscopic Thyroid Surgery: The surgeons may perform thyroid surgery through laparoscopy, a minimally invasive procedure that uses a laparoscope to remove the thyroid gland. A laparoscope is a long, thin tube with a video camera at the end. It is inserted in the neck to view the thyroid tissues. The instruments are then inserted through other holes to remove the thyroid gland.
  • Intraoperative Ultrasound Lymph Node Mapping: This procedure involves using an ultrasound to map the sentinel lymph node during surgery. The procedure is used to detect the spread of cancer to nearby lymph nodes.
  • Lymph Node Dissection: The onco-surgeons may also remove the lymph nodes to check for the spread of cancer. The sentinel nodes, the nodes that are believed to be affected by cancer at the initial stage, are taken out to check for cancer cells.