Diabetes is a chronic condition and is characterized by an increased level of sugar in the blood. It is important to diagnose and manage the disease early, as uncontrolled diabetes may result in significant complications. The measures that reduce the risk of diabetes include a healthy diet, an active lifestyle, and weight reduction.

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  • Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Management: Gestational diabetes is diabetes diagnosed during pregnancy in women who were non-diabetic before conception. It may have adverse health effects on the fetus and the mother. It is believed that hormonal alterations during pregnancy may cause gestational diabetes. The complications of gestational diabetes are preterm birth, excessive birth weight, stillbirth, low blood sugar in babies shortly after birth, and serious breathing difficulties in babies. The management options include lifestyle alterations, close monitoring of sugar levels, and medications.
  • Type 1 Diabetes Management: Type 1 diabetes, previously known as insulin-dependent diabetes or juvenile diabetes, is a chronic condition. In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas secretes very little or no insulin. Patients with type 1 diabetes experience frequent urination, increased thirst, weight loss, tiredness, weakness, and blurred vision. The causes include autoimmune disease, genetics, environmental factors, and viral exposure. Management of type 1 diabetes includes administration of insulin, healthy food intake, regular exercise, and monitoring blood sugar levels.
  • Type 2 Diabetes Management: Type 2 diabetes develops when the cells of the body respond poorly to insulin. There may also be reduced insulin secretion by the pancreas. The symptoms are similar to those of type 1 diabetes and include frequent urination, increased hunger, blurred vision, unintended weight loss, and frequent infections. The risk factors include obesity, physical inactivity, family history, polycystic ovary syndrome, and prediabetes. Management includes a healthy diet, regular exercise, blood sugar monitoring, weight loss, and medications or insulin.
  • Diabetic Emergencies Management: Diabetic emergencies should be treated promptly to prevent complications. The absence of insulin causes hyperglycemia, where the body goes into a catabolic state that involves breaking proteins into keto acids and fats into free fatty acids. The combination of these changes is known as diabetic ketoacidosis. It is a serious condition that requires immediate medical intervention. The other diabetic emergencies include severe hypoglycemia, hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state, and hyperglycemia without obvious acidosis.
  • Continuous Glucose Monitoring: A continuous glucose monitoring device automatically tracks blood sugar levels throughout the day. The advantages of continuous glucose monitoring are that it allows you to determine the changes in blood sugar throughout the day, alert the patients, relatives, or healthcare providers in case of significant variations, and deliver customized diabetic care.
  • Insulin Pumps: An insulin pump is a device that administers continuous and specific doses of insulin when required. When appropriately programmed, it may mimic the natural release of insulin. The advantages include reduced variations in blood sugar levels, enhanced flexibility, precise insulin delivery, and effective handling of sick days.