Device Therapy

Cardiac devices play an essential role in the management of several cardiovascular conditions. Several devices are used, depending upon the type of treatment required. These include pacemakers, biventricular pacemakers, implantable cardioverter defibrillators, and Implantable loop recorders.

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  • Biventricular Pacemaker: Biventricular pacemaker is recommended in patients with arrhythmia-related heart failure. The device ensures a coordinated contraction between the left and right ventricles to maintain blood circulation. A biventricular pacemaker comprises a pulse generator and three leads. During heart failure, along with arrhythmia, the coordination between the heart's lower chambers gets disturbed, lowering the amount of oxygen-rich blood reaching the body. A biventricular pacemaker is also implanted to treat life-threatening arrhythmias, poor ejection fraction, a large left ventricle, and severe or moderate heart failure symptoms.
  • Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (CRTs): Cardiac resynchronization therapy coordinates the timing of contractions in the lower and upper chambers of the heart. CRT is required in patients with moderate to severe heart failure, out-of-sync contraction of the ventricles, a weak and enlarged heart, and in patients in whom lifestyle modifications cannot control the symptoms of heart failure. The advantages of CRT are an increase in blood flow and an improvement in the efficiency of the heart.
  • Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators (ICDs):These are implantable devices placed under the skin in the chest. The function of the device is to detect abnormal heart rhythms and correct them. The correction of the abnormal heart rhythm occurs through the generation of an electric shock. ICDs are recommended in patients with a significantly higher heartbeat (ventricular tachycardia) or at increased risk for abnormal heart rhythm (arrhythmia). ICD devices are implanted after performing a comprehensive evaluation of the patient through ECG, echocardiography, Holter monitor, and an event recorder.
  • Implantable Loop Recorders: Implantable loop recorder is a heart-monitoring device that continuously records the heartbeat for about three years. An implantable loop recorder is placed in patients with unexplained fainting, unexplained stroke, and arrhythmia. As the device continuously monitors the heartbeat, it can record an alteration in the heartbeat at a specific point that the other devices cannot detect.


A Biventricular Pacemaker, also known as Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (CRT), is a device used to treat certain types of heart failure. It helps coordinate the pumping action of the heart's chambers, improving its efficiency.

The Biventricular Pacemaker sends small electrical impulses to both lower chambers (ventricles) of the heart to help them beat in sync. This synchronization can improve symptoms and quality of life for patients with specific cardiac conditions.

Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators are devices that monitor the heart's rhythm and deliver an electric shock if a life-threatening arrhythmia, such as ventricular fibrillation or ventricular tachycardia, is detected. They help prevent sudden cardiac arrest.

An Implantable Loop Recorder is a small device implanted under the skin that continuously monitors the heart's electrical activity over an extended period. It assists in diagnosing irregular heartbeat patterns or unexplained fainting episodes.

The lifespan of these devices varies depending on factors like battery longevity and individual patient needs. On average, pacemakers may last 5-15 years, ICDs around 7-10 years, while loop recorders generally remain active for up to 3 years before requiring replacement.

As with any medical procedure involving implants and surgery, there are potential risks involved. These can include infection at the implant site, bleeding or bruising during or after surgery, damage to blood vessels or the heart, and potential complications related to anesthesia. Your healthcare provider will discuss these risks with you beforehand.

Recovery time can vary depending on the specific procedure and individual patient factors. Generally, patients may experience some discomfort at the implant site for a few days following surgery. It's essential to follow your doctor's post-operative instructions and attend necessary follow-up appointments for optimal recovery.

In many cases, patients can resume their normal activities after recovering from the implantation procedure. However, it is crucial to follow your doctor's guidelines regarding physical activity restrictions or any lifestyle adjustments needed based on your specific condition and device therapy.