Cardiac surgery

Cardiac surgery involves surgical intervention on the heart or the arteries carrying blood to the heart muscles. The conditions that require cardiac surgery include coronary artery diseases, valvular heart diseases, the implantation of specific devices, such as a pacemaker, and congenital heart disease.

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  • Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery: Coronary artery bypass surgery is a surgical intervention that involves creating a path that bypasses the blocked artery to restore blood flow to the heart. Conventional coronary artery bypass surgery involves cutting the sternum to reach the heart. There are several other types of bypass surgeries. These are:
  • Minimally Invasive: During minimally invasive bypass surgery, the surgeons do not cut the sternal bones; instead, they make small holes through the ribs to perform the surgery. The heart is not stopped during the surgery, and most patients do not require a heart-lung bypass machine.
  • Total Arterial: When only the arterial grafts are used for making a bypass and subsequent revascularization, the surgery is known as total arterial bypass surgery or total arterial revascularization. The advantages of this procedure include long-term patency, a high degree of versatility, and a minimum need for reintervention.
  • Bilateral Mammary: When the bilateral internal mammary arteries are used to make the bypass route for blood flow in the heart, the procedure is known as bilateral mammary artery bypass surgery (BIMA). It is usually used for bypassing the Left Anterior Descending (LAD) coronary artery.
  • Mitral Valve Repair and Replacement (Metallic and Tissue Prostheses): Surgeries related to the mitral valve can be open or minimally invasive. The conditions that involve repairing or replacing the mitral valve include regurgitation, stenosis, or prolapse. If the valve is severely damaged and cannot be repaired, then the doctor replaces it with either a mechanical valve or a biological valve (a valve made of tissues of a pig, cow, or human heart).
  • Aortic Valve Repair and replacement (Metallic and Tissue Prostheses): The conditions that involve the repair or replacement of the aortic valve are congenital heart defects, aortic valve stenosis, and aortic valve regurgitation. During replacement, the surgeon may use a mechanical valve or biological valve.
  • Tricuspid Valve Repair: The repair or replacement surgery of the tricuspid valve is done when there is stenosis, regurgitation, and atresia of the tricuspid valve. The type of surgery on the tricuspid valve depends on the severity of the disease, the symptoms experienced, and its progression.