Cardiac procedures are performed to treat various diseases of the heart. The diseases treated may include congenital conditions, such as patent ductus arteriosus and septal defects, and acquired conditions, such as coronary artery disease and heart failure. With the advancements in technology and the availability of new surgical interventions, there has been a significant improvement in the favorable outcomes following cardiac surgery."Cardiology"
Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) occurs when the blood vessels supplying the heart become narrow or blocked due to plaque buildup, restricting blood flow and oxygen delivery to the heart muscle. This can lead to chest pain (angina), heart attack, or other cardiovascular complications.
Septal Defect refers to a hole in the wall separating the heart's chambers. Treatment options for septal defects include medication, catheter-based procedures such as device closure, or open-heart surgery depending on factors like defect size and location.
Valvular Disease involves damage or malfunction of one or more of the heart valves that regulate blood flow within the heart chambers. Depending on its severity, valvular disease may require medical management, minimally invasive valve repair/replacement procedures, or surgical intervention.
Carotid Artery Disease occurs when fatty deposits accumulate in the carotid arteries leading to reduced blood flow to the brain which increases stroke risk. Treatment options may involve lifestyle modifications, medications for symptom control and prevention of further narrowing, as well as surgical interventions like carotid endarterectomy or angioplasty with stenting.
Diseases affecting the aorta include conditions like aneurysms (ballooning of artery walls) and dissections (tears in arterial layers). Management may vary based on symptoms and severity but can range from regular monitoring through imaging studies to surgical repair using open-heart techniques or less invasive endovascular approaches.
Pulmonary Thromboembolism refers to a blockage in the pulmonary arteries, usually caused by a blood clot that travels from elsewhere in the body. Treatment may involve medications to dissolve or prevent clots, oxygen therapy, and occasionally surgical procedures such as embolectomy or placement of an inferior vena cava filter.
This shunting is used to correct the congenital defect that affects blood flow to the lungs. During this procedure, a pathway is formed between the right subclavian and pulmonary arteries.
The Bentall procedure is performed to treat the aortic aneurysm. The surgery involves removing the aorta and aortic heart valve.