Cardiac Procedures

Cardiac procedures are performed to treat various diseases of the heart. The diseases treated may include congenital conditions, such as patent ductus arteriosus and septal defects, and acquired conditions, such as coronary artery disease and heart failure. With the advancements in technology and the availability of new surgical interventions, there has been a significant improvement in the favorable outcomes following cardiac surgery.


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  • Conditions
  • Coronary Artery Disease: The coronary artery supplies blood to the heart muscles. Blockage in the coronary artery may result in reduced blood flow to the heart muscles. This condition is called coronary artery disease.
  • Septal Defect: The wall separates the chambers of the heart. A hole in any of the walls is known as a septal defect. The types of septal defects are atrial septal defect and ventricular septal defect.
  • Valvular Disease: Several valves are present in the heart, which ensures unidirectional blood flow. Diseases of these valves are known as valvular diseases.
  • Carotid Artery Disease: Carotid artery disease is characterized by fatty deposits in the carotid artery (the artery that supplies blood to the brain).
  • Diseases of the Aorta: The aorta carries the blood from the heart to the body. Several diseases affect the aorta, such as dissection, coarctation (congenital disease), stenosis, and abdominal aortic aneurysm.
  • Heart Failure: It occurs when the heart is unable to circulate adequate blood to meet the body's demands.
  • Pulmonary Thromboembolism: When a clot is formed in any vessel in the body, it is known as thrombosis. When this clot travels and blocks the pulmonary vessels, the condition is known as pulmonary thromboembolism.
  • Procedures
  • Adult Cardiac Procedures: The adult cardiac procedures include heart valve replacement, heart valve repair, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, heart transplant, pulmonary endarterectomy, coronary artery bypass grafting, aortic root replacement (Bentall procedure), assisted devices, and LV restoration surgery.
  • Pediatric Cardiac Procedures: Pediatric cardiac procedures include septal defect closure, patent ductus arteriosus closure, Fontan procedure, Tetralogy of Fallot(TOF) repair, aortopulmonary window repair, Blalock-Taussig shunts, total anomalous pulmonary venous connection repair, and Partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection repair.
  • Advanced Cardiac Procedures: Advanced cardiac procedures include bilateral internal mammary artery grafts (BIMA), total arterial off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting, and minimally invasive cardiac surgery.


Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) occurs when the blood vessels supplying the heart become narrow or blocked due to plaque buildup, restricting blood flow and oxygen delivery to the heart muscle. This can lead to chest pain (angina), heart attack, or other cardiovascular complications.

Septal Defect refers to a hole in the wall separating the heart's chambers. Treatment options for septal defects include medication, catheter-based procedures such as device closure, or open-heart surgery depending on factors like defect size and location.

Valvular Disease involves damage or malfunction of one or more of the heart valves that regulate blood flow within the heart chambers. Depending on its severity, valvular disease may require medical management, minimally invasive valve repair/replacement procedures, or surgical intervention.

Carotid Artery Disease occurs when fatty deposits accumulate in the carotid arteries leading to reduced blood flow to the brain which increases stroke risk. Treatment options may involve lifestyle modifications, medications for symptom control and prevention of further narrowing, as well as surgical interventions like carotid endarterectomy or angioplasty with stenting.

Diseases affecting the aorta include conditions like aneurysms (ballooning of artery walls) and dissections (tears in arterial layers). Management may vary based on symptoms and severity but can range from regular monitoring through imaging studies to surgical repair using open-heart techniques or less invasive endovascular approaches.

Pulmonary Thromboembolism refers to a blockage in the pulmonary arteries, usually caused by a blood clot that travels from elsewhere in the body. Treatment may involve medications to dissolve or prevent clots, oxygen therapy, and occasionally surgical procedures such as embolectomy or placement of an inferior vena cava filter.

This shunting is used to correct the congenital defect that affects blood flow to the lungs. During this procedure, a pathway is formed between the right subclavian and pulmonary arteries.

The Bentall procedure is performed to treat the aortic aneurysm. The surgery involves removing the aorta and aortic heart valve.