Breast cancer

Breast cancer occurs when the cells of the breast tissues grow and divide uncontrollably. The symptoms of breast cancer include a lump in the breast, an inverted nipple, alteration in shape, size, and appearance, and pitting or redness of breast skin.

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  • Lumpectomy or Partial Mastectomy: Lumpectomy is a procedure that involves the removal of the lump from the breast along with the healthy tissue margin surrounding the lump to reduce the risk of cancer recurrence. The procedure is also known as a segmental mastectomy. The surgery is effective when the cancer is diagnosed early and is limited to only one section of the breast.
  • Total Mastectomy: Total mastectomy involves the removal of the complete breast, including the areola, nipples, and the skin over the breast. The surgeon may also remove the surrounding lymph nodes to check if cancer has spread to them.
  • Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy: It is an effective and safe method for staging breast cancer. Sentinel lymph nodes are the nodes that are believed to be affected by cancer in its early stages.
  • Axillary Lymph Node Dissection: Axillary lymph nodes are also known as armpit lymph nodes as they are located in the armpit. Axillary lymph node dissection is performed to diagnose breast cancer metastasis into the lymph nodes.
  • Skin-sparing Mastectomy: Skin-sparing mastectomy is the surgical intervention that involves the removal of the breast tissues, nipples, and areola while preserving most of the breast skin. It makes reconstruction easier with no or minimal scarring.
  • Nipple/areola-sparing Mastectomy:It is a surgery that involves the removal of the breast tissues and sparing the nipple-areola complex along with the breast skin. This complex surgery may have complications, including nipple and areola necrosis (tissue damage due to a lack of blood supply), if not properly performed.
  • Plastic and Reconstructive Breast Surgery:Breast reconstructive surgery involves reconstruction of the breast after a total mastectomy or lumpectomy. The patients may have reconstructive surgery soon after a lumpectomy or mastectomy or later. The techniques used in the surgery include the use of silicone breast implants and tissue flaps.