Acute Kidney injury

Acute kidney injury is also known as acute kidney failure or acute renal failure. The condition involves sudden kidney damage, resulting in the loss of the ability to filter the blood. The symptoms of acute kidney injury are shortness of breath, tiredness, confusion, swelling in the ankles and legs, and nausea.

  • Drug-Related Kidney Injury: There are several ways in which the drug may cause renal disorders. It may directly damage the kidneys or cause intrarenal obstruction, nephritic syndrome, interstitial nephritis, and acid-base or electrolyte imbalance. Some drugs that may affect the functioning of the kidneys include antibiotics, chemotherapy drugs, immunotherapy drugs, and bisphosphonates.
  • Infections: Severe infections like sepsis may also lead to acute renal failure. There are several reasons for acute kidney failure due to sepsis. These include hypotension (low blood pressure), inflammation in the kidney, tubular obstruction, and endothelial dysfunction. Patients with acute or chronic kidney injury due to sepsis may have poor outcomes.
  • Urinary Tract Blockage: In some patients, urine flow is blocked due to certain medical conditions leading to acute kidney failure. These conditions include an enlarged prostate, cervical, prostate, or bladder cancer, kidney stones, the presence of blood clots in the urinary tract, and neurological conditions that affect the functioning of the bladder and the process of urination.
  • Underlying Medical Conditions: Apart from infection and obstruction of the tract, several other diseases may also cause acute kidney injury. These diseases include scarring and inflammation of the blood vessels of the kidneys (vasculitis), cancer (multiple myeloma), connective tissue disorder (scleroderma), glomerulonephritis, and microangiopathy (damaging renal tubules).
  • Impaired Blood Flow: In some cases, the patients may experience impaired blood flow to the kidneys. It may be due to various conditions, such as failure of the heart and liver, (heart failure or heart attack), injury to the blood vessels carrying the blood from the kidneys, burns, blood loss due to severe diarrhea or major surgery.